Archive for the ‘Building Materials’ Category

It consists of an integrated set of items with the static function to set the external cladding of building structures


Anchor System

It consists of an integrated set of items with the static function to set the external cladding of building structures, the latter being forced to bear the agents loaded on it and, in particular the wind.

The anchoring system may consist of:
specific elements “Local Fixing”
an anchor structure “spead Fixing”

In the first case, however, lost one of the main advantages of the ventilated facade as anchor using specific elements, including cladding elements of small dimensions, are to create a large number of thermal bridges that determine a sensible increase heat dispersion.

The materials used today by the hooves are treated type steel or Read the rest of this entry »


One of the main segments of the market segment is building the MC – Steel fabricated buildings

Metal Ware

The use of steel in the construction of prefabricated buildings

The concept of “Metal” (the IC) includes a wide range of products, which are sometimes very different among themselves, and combines them only one thing – they’re all made with the use of any metal, both ferrous and nonferrous. In addition, most products are bundled with other materials and a modular design. All items under the term “metal construction” can be divided into the following groups:

Building metal constructions combine in himself all types of metal building frames for any purpose (Roof Trusses, columns, girders, connections, beams, roof structures, canopies, dome construction, etc.)

Protecting designs – galvanized corrugated sheet, sandwich panels, sandwich, window frames and blocks, metal doors and gates, additional elements to them.

Modular buildings or block-containers – all block construction.

Metal work – tanks, tanks and other containers for Read the rest of this entry »


The classification of buildings- Requirements for buildings


Section 1.The main elements of design schemes and buildings 

– The main structural elements and circuits building. Background. Architectural planning and design solutions for buildings and facilities. A single modular system. Typification and unification. The classification of buildings. Requirements for buildings.

– Terms of binding columns and walls to the focal axes. The calculation of building structures. Foundations. Classification. Calculation of foundations. The foundations for the equipment.

– One-story frame commercial buildings and structural elements. Constructive elements of the framework of multi-storey industrial and civil buildings.

– Walls made of wood and wood products. Arbolitovye Read the rest of this entry »


This is an important physical characteristic is determined by dividing the sample mass by its volume


Physical properties of building materials
Building materials have complex physical properties. Numerical indicators of the physical properties are determined by special methods and devices.

The physical properties are expressing the ability of materials to respond to the impact of physical factors, gravity, ie, based on the law of gravity, heat, water environment, acoustic, electric, radiation, etc.

The average density characterizes the mass per unit volume of material in its natural state (with pores). This is an important physical characteristic is determined by dividing the sample mass by its volume. For an accurate volume measurement is more convenient to take samples of regular geometric shape, although there are some simple methods of measurement of volume samples and irregular in shape. With wet samples indicated the value of humidity, which determined the average density.

The average density of loose material, such as sand, crushed stone, gravel, called the bulk density. Its magnitude reflects the influence not only the pores in each grain or piece, and interstitial voids in the material volume ryhlonasypannom.

The true density – mass per unit volume of homogeneous material in a completely dense state, ie, without pores, cracks or other cavities, the inherent material in its normal state.

Porosity – the degree of filling volume of the material pores. If you want to Read the rest of this entry »


The building and maintenance of buildings and structures are selected appropriate building materials

General information about building materials and their basic properties

During construction, operation and repair of buildings and facilities construction products and designs from which they are built are subjected to various physical, mechanical, physical, and technological influences. From the engineer required with knowledge to choose the right material, product or design that has sufficient durability, reliability and durability for the concrete conditions.

Building materials and products used in construction, reconstruction and repair of various buildings and structures, are divided into
natural
artificial

which in turn are divided into two main categories:

The first category includes:
brick, concrete, cement, lumber, etc. They are used in the construction of various building elements (walls, floors, roofs, floors).

the second category – special applications:
waterproofing, insulation, acoustics, etc.
The main types of building materials and Read the rest of this entry »


Rugged and waterproof autoclave materials and products obtained by chemical reaction of finely ground lime and siliceous components in the process of hydrothermal treatment in steam environment at 175 ° C


Under the terms of hardening – they are divided into:
products in the autoclave hardening and heat treatment
products, solidifying in the air-wet environment.

Materials and products autoclaved

For the manufacture of autoclaved extensive use of local materials: lime, quartz sand, the waste industry.

Rugged and waterproof autoclave materials and products obtained by chemical reaction of finely ground lime and siliceous components in the process of hydrothermal treatment in steam environment at 175 ° C in an autoclave under pressure 0.8-1.4 MPa. A chemical reaction is strong and water-resistant substance (calcium silicate), which cements the sand particles, forming an artificial stone. Autoclave materials and products can be as dense and cellular structure.

The diameter of the autoclave – 2.6 – 3.6 m, length – 21 – 30 m autoclave equipped with a pressure gauge showing the pressure of steam, and Read the rest of this entry »


Bitumen is divided into natural and artificial. In the nature pure bitumen is rare


Mixed binders – are hydraulic binders containing finely trails, blast furnace slag or sand blast, and hydrate of lime or portland cement as an inhibitor for the perception of water. Mixed binder hardens as the air and under water. Their compressive strength according to DIN 4207 is set at least 15 N / mm ² at 28 days after laying. Mixed binder may be applied only to solutions and non-reinforced concrete.

Bituminous Materials

Bitumen is divided into natural and artificial. In the nature pure bitumen is rare. Typically, the bitumen is extracted from sedimentary rock porous rock saturated with them as a result of lifting oil from the lower layers. Artificial bitumen are in the processing of oil, resulting in stripping of her composition of gases (propane, ethylene), gasoline, kerosene and diesel fuel.

Natural bitumen – a solid or viscous liquid consisting of a mixture of hydrocarbons.

Asphaltic rocks – rocks impregnated with bitumen (limestone, dolomite, sandstone and clay). Bitumen is extracted from them by heating or use of these species in the form of a Read the rest of this entry »


Ceramic building materials are divided into porous and dense


Artificial materials kilns

Artificial kilns and Materials (ceramics) is prepared by firing at 900-1300 ° C molded and dried clay mass. As a result of firing the clay mass is converted into an artificial stone, which has good strength, high-density composition, water resistance, water resistance, frost resistance and durability. Raw materials for ceramics is clay, with inputs in it, in some cases, emaciated additives. These additives reduce the shrinkage of the product during drying and firing, increase porosity, reduce the average density and thermal conductivity. As additives use sand, crushed ceramics, slag, ash, charcoal, sawdust. The firing temperature depends on the temperature of the melting of clay. Ceramic building materials are divided into porous and dense. Porous materials have a relative density of up to 95% and water absorption of not more than 5% of their compressive strength does not exceed 35 MPa (bricks, drain pipes). Dense materials have a relative density greater than 95%, water absorption of less than 5%, compressive strength of 100 MPa, and they have the Read the rest of this entry »


Sand-lime brick is formed at a special press from carefully prepared homogeneous mixtures of pure quartz sand


Autoclave silicate concrete

A mixture of lime-silica binder, sand and water. As the binders used lime-pozzolan-lime, slag and lime-ash cements. Products made of autoclaved lime-sand concrete has sufficient frost resistance, water resistance and chemical resistance to some aggressive environments. Of autoclaved lime produce large, dense, silicate building blocks.

Autoclaved aerated concrete

Prepared from a homogeneous mixture of mineral binder, silica component, gypsum and water. Binders are Portland cement, ground lime-kipelka. During aging products before autoclaving of a hydrogen is released, resulting in a homogeneous plastic-viscous medium astringent form small bubbles. In the process of gassing these bubbles grow in size, creating a spheroidal cell in the entire mass of Read the rest of this entry »


Building an air of different types of lime used in the preparation of masonry and plaster

Hydration (inorganic) binder
Air binders.
Hydraulic binders.

Hydration (inorganic) binders called finely divided materials (powders) which, when mixed with water form a dough, which can in the process of chemical interaction with it to harden, to gain strength by associating with a single monolith introduced in a filler, usually of stone materials (sand, gravel, crushed rock), thus forming an artificial rock type of sandstone, conglomerate.

Hydration binders are divided into:
Air (hardening and gaining strength in the air only)
Hydraulic (hardening in a moist, air and underwater).

Building common lime (CaO) – a product of moderate firing at 900-1300 ° C of natural carbonates (CaCO3), with up to 8% clay impurities (limestone, dolomite, chalk, etc.). Firing is carried out in the mines and rotary kilns. The most widely used shaft furnaces. During roasting of limestone in the blast furnace shaft moving in down the material passes successively three zones: a zone of heating (drying of raw materials and Read the rest of this entry »


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